The Dominguez-Escalante Expedition

This episode originally aired September 8, 2006.
This episode’s audio file may be found at http://www.utahhumanities.org/BeehiveArchive.htm
© 2006 Utah Humanities Council

The Script:

In 1776, the same year the Declaration of Independence was signed, a group of Spanish explorers entered present-day Utah Valley.  Led by two Franciscan friars named Silvestre Velez de Escalante and Francisco Dominguez, the expedition was launched to find a northern path from New Mexico to one of Spain’s newest colonies, California.

Dominguez and Escalante left Santa Fe in July, traveling north.  By the time they reached what is now Colorado, they’d recruited 12 other Spaniards and two Ute men, members of the Timpanogots band that lived on the shores of Utah Lake, to join them.  The two Native Americans agreed to guide the Spanish to Utah Valley.  Their trail from Colorado took them near what is now Dinosaur National Park, up the Strawberry River, and down Spanish Fork Canyon.  On September 23, they climbed a hill near the present-day Spanish Oaks Golf Course, and were treated to a panoramic view of the pristine valley below them, with its sparkling emerald lake and ring of steep mountains.  Intending to push on to California, the Spaniards recruited a new Timpanogots guide and turned southwest.  But their guide didn’t stick around for long and by October they were marching through snow, so they revised their plans and headed back to New Mexico.

The Dominguez-Escalante expedition illuminates the competing claims people made to the land we now know as Utah.  The territory remained on the fringes of the Spanish Empire even after word of the expedition got out.  Occasional trading, trapping, and slaving expeditions made their way through the region, but few if any Spaniards chose to settle here.  Still, the Spanish and the Mexicans—who won independence from Spain in 1821—claimed the area as theirs.  The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which ended the war between the United States and Mexico in 1848, legally turned the region over to the American government, but older traditions and claims still remain.  When Mexican immigrants talk about crossing the border into the United States, they often don’t refer to the name of the nation into which they’re moving.  Instead they call the land “El Norte”—the North—or the piece of the American West that was once part of the old Spanish and Mexican empires.

Sources:

See Thomas G. Alexander, Utah: The Right Place 2d ed. (Salt Lake City: Gibbs Smith, 2003), 55-57; and Ted J. Warner, The Dominguez-Escalante Journal: Their Expedition Through Colorado, Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico in 1776 (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1995). Also see Bernice M. Mooney’s entry on the Catholic Church in the online Utah History Encyclopedia at http://www.media.utah.edu/UHE.

Advertisements

4 responses to “The Dominguez-Escalante Expedition

  1. Good to see the blog up and running again. Do you know if the Latino community in Utah has utilized the story of the Dominguez-Escalante expedition to stake their own claims to a heritage in Utah?

  2. Yes — good to see this again. I even put a button on my browser toolbar when the Beehive Archive opened, I liked it so well.

    Bite-size history!

  3. Chris and Ardis–

    It’s nice to be back up. Thanks for the blogging pointers.

    Chris–Your question is a good one. It’s hard to say how the history of the expedition has been deployed by Utahns, particularly by Latino/Hispanic Utahns. In the history books, the expedition is often seen as an interesting, but not very significant, prelude to Euro-American settlement. But if you study the maps of the Colorado Plateau and Great Basin produced by Bernardo Miera y Pacheco, a member of the expedition, you get a much better picture of the expedition’s legacy. Despite some geographical errors, including collapsing the Great Salt Lake and Utah Lake into one body of water, the Miera maps, along with Escalante’s journal, provide us with the first solid documents that describe the geography of the northern Great Basin in detail. This is certainly something Utah’s Hispanic/Latino community could seize on as a major contribution to the state’s history.

  4. Thanks for the response. I’m going to look into this a bit more to see what I can find.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s